What is GST in India?
GST is known as the Goods and Services Tax. It is an indirect tax which has replaced many indirect taxes in India such as the excise duty, VAT, services tax, etc. The Goods and Service Tax Act was passed in the Parliament on 29th March 2017 and came into effect on 1st July 2017.
In other words,Goods and Service Tax (GST) is levied on the supply of goods and services. Goods and Services Tax Law in India is a comprehensive, multi-stage, destination-based tax that is levied on every value addition. GST is a single domestic indirect tax law for the entire country.
What are the components of GST?
There are three taxes applicable under this system: CGST, SGST & IGST.
- CGST: It is the tax collected by the Central Government on an intra-state sale (e.g., a transaction happening within Maharashtra)
- SGST: It is the tax collected by the state government on an intra-state sale (e.g., a transaction happening within Maharashtra)
- IGST: It is a tax collected by the Central Government for an inter-state sale (e.g., Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu)
What are the New Compliances Under GST?
Apart from online filing of the GST returns, the GST regime has introduced several new systems along with it.
e-Way BillsAll Pages
GST introduced a centralised system of waybills by the introduction of “E-way bills”. This system was launched on 1st April 2018 for inter-state movement of goods and on 15th April 2018 for intra-state movement of goods in a staggered manner.
Under the e-way bill system, manufacturers, traders and transporters can generate e-way bills for the goods transported from the place of its origin to its destination on a common portal with ease. Tax authorities are also benefited as this system has reduced time at check -posts and helps reduce tax evasion.
Recently, the e-invoicing system has been launched on a trial basis starting from January 2020 and applicable from October 2020. This system requires large businesses with an annual aggregate turnover of more than Rs.100 crore to comply with some requirements.
They must obtain a unique invoice reference number for every business-to-business invoice by uploading on the GSTN’s portal known as the invoice registration portal. The portal verifies the correctness and genuineness of the invoice. Thereafter, it authorises using the digital signature along with a QR code.
E-invoicing allows interoperability of invoices and helps reduce data entry errors. It is designed to pass the invoice information directly from the IRP to the GST portal and the e-way bill portal. It will, therefore, eliminate the requirement for manual data entry while filing ANX-1/GST returns and for the generation of part-A of the e-way bills.
Types of GST Returns
GSTR-1 is the return to be furnished for reporting details of all outward supplies of goods and services made, or in other words, sales transactions made during a tax period, and also for reporting debit and credit notes issued. Any amendments to sales invoices made, even pertaining to previous tax periods, should be reported in the GSTR-1 return.
GSTR-1 is to be filed by all normal taxpayers who are registered under GST. It is to be filed monthly, except in the case of small taxpayers with turnover up to Rs.1.5 crore in the previous financial year, who can file the same on a quarterly basis.
GSTR-2A is the return containing details of all inward supplies of goods and services i.e. purchases made from registered suppliers during a tax period. The data is auto-populated based on data filed by the suppliers in their GSTR-1 return. GSTR-2A is a read-only return and no action can be taken.
GSTR-2 is the return for reporting the inward supplies of goods and services i.e. the purchases made during a tax period. The details in the GSTR-2 return are auto-populated from the GSTR-2A. Unlike GSTR-2A, the GSTR-2 return can be edited.
GSTR-2 is to be filed by all normal taxpayers registered under GST, however, the filing of the same has been suspended ever since the inception of GST.
GSTR-3 is a monthly summary return for furnishing summarized details of all outward supplies made, inward supplies received and input tax credit claimed, along with details of the tax liability and taxes paid. This return is auto-generated on the basis of the GSTR-1 and GSTR-2 returns filed.
GSTR-3 is to be filed by all normal taxpayers registered under GST, however, the filing of the same has been suspended ever since the inception of GST.
GSTR-3B is a monthly self-declaration to be filed, for furnishing summarized details of all outward supplies made, input tax credit claimed, tax liability ascertained and taxes paid.
GSTR-3B is to be filed by all normal taxpayers registered under GST.
6. GSTR-4 / CMP-08
GSTR-4 is the return that was to be filed by taxpayers who have opted for the Composition Scheme under GST. CMP-08 is the return which has replaced the now erstwhile GSTR-4. The Composition Scheme is a scheme in which taxpayers with turnover up to Rs.1.5 crores can opt into and pay taxes at a fixed rate on the turnover declared.
The CMP-08 return is to be filed on a quarterly basis.
GSTR-5 is the return to be filed by non-resident foreign taxpayers, who are registered under GST and carry out business transactions in India. The return contains details of all outward supplies made, inward supplies received, credit/debit notes, tax liability and taxes paid.
The GSTR-5 return is to be filed monthly for each month that the taxpayer is registered under GST in India.
GSTR-6 is a monthly return to be filed by an Input Service Distributor (ISD). It will contain details of input tax credit received and distributed by the ISD. It will further contain details of all documents issued for the distribution of input credit and the manner of distribution.
GSTR-7 is a monthly return to be filed by persons required to deduct TDS (Tax deducted at source) under GST. GSTR 7 will contain details of TDS deducted, the TDS liability payable and paid and TDS refund claimed, if any.
GSTR-8 is a monthly return to be filed by e-commerce operators registered under the GST who are required to collect tax at source (TCS). GSTR-8 will contain details of all supplies made through the E-commerce platform, and the TCS collected on the same.
The GSTR-8 return is to be filed on a monthly basis.
GSTR-9 is the annual return to be filed by taxpayers registered under GST. It will contain details of all outward supplies made, inward supplies received during the relevant previous year under different tax heads i.e. CGST, SGST & IGST and HSN codes, along with details of taxes payable and paid. It is a consolidation of all the monthly or quarterly returns (GSTR-1, GSTR-2A, GSTR-3B) filed during that year.
GSTR-9 is required to be filed by all taxpayers registered under GST*, except taxpayers who have opted for the Composition Scheme, Casual Taxable Persons, Input Service Distributors, Non-resident Taxable Persons and persons paying TDS under section 51 of CGST Act.
*As per the CBIC notification 47/2019, the annual return under GST for taxpayers having an aggregate turnover which does not exceed Rs.2 crore has been made optional for FY 2017-18 and FY 2018-19.
GSTR-9A is the annual return to be filed by taxpayers who have registered under the Composition Scheme in a financial year*. It is a consolidation of all the quarterly returns filed during that financial year.
*GSTR-9A filing for Composition taxpayers has been waived off for FY 2017-18 and FY 2018-19 as per the decision taken in the 27th GST Council meeting.
GSTR-9C is the reconciliation statement to be filed by all taxpayers registered under GST whose turnover exceeds Rs.2 crore in a financial year. The registered person has to get their books of accounts audited by a Chartered/Cost Accountant. The statement of reconciliation is between these audited financial statements of the taxpayer and the annual return GSTR-9 that has been filed.
GSTR-9C is to be filed for every GSTIN, hence, one PAN can have multiple GSTR-9C forms being filed.
As per the CBIC notification 16/2020, GSTR-9C is waived off for the taxpayers with an aggregate turnover of more than Rs 5 crore for the financial year 2018-19.
GSTR-10 is to be filed by a taxable person whose registered has been cancelled or surrendered. This return is also called a final return and has to be filed within 3 months from the date of cancellation or cancellation order, whichever is earlier.
GSTR-11 is the return to be filed by persons who have been issued a Unique Identity Number(UIN) in order to get a refund under GST for the goods and services purchased by them in India. UIN is a classification made for foreign diplomatic missions and embassies not liable to tax in India, for the purpose of getting a refund of taxes. GSTR-11 will contain details of inward supplies received and refund claimed.